6 meteorological phenomena and their effects on agricultural production
Climate change is causing increasingly strong, recurring meteorological phenomena that have challenged several areas. Brazil has been directly impacted by them, as shown by data from the capital of the state of São Paulo. By February, the city had already received the amount of rain that was expected for most of the year — more precisely, 99.4% of it.
Although all sectors are impacted by these transformations, in terms of access to the raw materials needed to boost industries, for example, the agricultural sector tends to feel its effects more widely. In this article, we are going to talk about some of them.
So, if you want to delve deeper into the subject and learn how to minimize the bad effects, keep on reading this article!
Even though this is one of the most predictable meteorological phenomena, through the use of technology and real-time data, statistics such as those mentioned above show that rainfall gradually becomes unpredictable. They are divided into three types:
While the first is common in mountainous regions, due to the blocking of humid air masses by the topography, the second happens everywhere. It comes from the heat, is short-lived, and is strong. Finally, the latter occurs as a result of the encounter between cold and warm air masses.
These explanations show just how simple this phenomenon is. However, since climate change has affected its frequencies and forces, some agricultural regions have suffered losses. While wheat, for example, suffers from excess water, the horticultural complex is impacted by the lack of it.
Therefore, in addition to investing in the reduction of impacts, it is necessary to adapt cultures to the most favorable conditions for their development. In uncertain times, technology tends to be the best ally.
2. El Niño
This famous event is commonly seen in the vicinity of the Pacific Ocean. It occurs sporadically — at an interval of 2 to 7 years. During its occurrence, temperatures rise abnormally, which generates greater evaporation of water and, consequently, heavier rains.
With the effects of a different frequency and temperature, many crops suffer consequences — especially those that are sensitive to climate change, such as chickpeas, peas, and peppers.
However, in south-central South America, they can be positive, culminating in rainfalls that are properly distributed and more abundant. It is recommended that professionals identify and take advantage of these opportunities or, in negative cases, seek to minimize their impacts.
For this, a good suggestion is to follow the information disseminated by high-standard meteorologists. They are responsible for identifying and announcing such events. In this way, farmers are able to implement preventive measures and define an adequate agricultural calendar.
3. La Niña
Being very confused with El Niño, these meteorological phenomena also come from the Pacific Ocean. However, its main difference is the cooling of the waters — instead of the heating. This results in increased rainfall accumulation and long overcast periods. In turn, plants suffer from a lack of light.
This event occurs more sporadically than the previous one. Still, planning the actions to be taken can make a difference in mitigating several challenges in agricultural production.
As pointed out in El Niño, it is interesting that farmers keep an eye on the data released by agrometeorology. They will be of great help in taking necessary precautions.
4. Greenhouse effect
Despite being one of the most important, this phenomenon is largely neglected. It is generated by the high burning of fossil fuels, which results in a high concentration of carbon dioxide and ultimately warms the Earth.
The results include, among many other obstacles, the melting of the ice caps, climate change, and fires. In this sense, production losses are worrying. It is essential to invest in socio-environmental responsibility, as well as the search for cleaner sources of energy.
It is also important to keep in mind that, although there are plants that better resist drought and dryness, the constant increase in temperatures can affect even these species.
These dangerous events take shape as there is a rise in warm atmospheric air masses that go up, while cold air masses go down. As a result, there are aggressive storms and strong winds. They tend to reach 200 km/h and have a circular shape.
In terms of range, cyclones can go from clouds to the ground, devastating the places they pass through. In this case, it is difficult for agricultural production not to be impacted. So, it is interesting to avoid areas of high occurrence of these meteorological phenomena, in addition to looking for their anticipation.
6. Climate zoning
This event is not necessarily a meteorological phenomenon. However, it is interesting to bring it up, as it is an excellent agricultural profile analysis tool. When carrying it out, specialists guarantee the best plantations according to the region and climate forecasts.
For this, average rainfall, soil quality, temperature, and phenomena capable of reaching the region are analyzed. In other words, Climate Zoning is essential for those seeking to minimize production challenges.
In order to succeed in the field — even in the midst of adversity — it is essential to stay current on how to minimize the effects of the events described. In addition to the tips presented, it is also important to rely on field technology.
When correctly applied, it allows professionals to foresee certain adversities and, before suffering their consequences, mitigate them. In this way, they can reap the best fruits of their efforts and guarantee the quality of their plantations.
Meteorological phenomena accompany history since its beginnings. Knowing the conditions of the soil, temperature, food and the characteristics of the seasons is essential for the quality of the harvest result. However, with increasingly unexpected events, betting on innovation will be the differential of healthy and productive cultures.
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